**NANOSCALE AND BEYOND**

**Referencing the International System of Units, the prefix "nano" means one-billionth, or 10**

^{-9}. One nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. Here are some approximated examples:- A sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick
- A strand of human DNA is 2.5 nanometers in diameter
- There are 25,400,000 nanometers in one inch
- A human hair is ~ 80,000- 100,000 nanometers wide
- A single gold atom is about 1/3 nanometer in diameter
- If a marble was one nanometer, the Earth would be one meter
- A fingernail grows ~ a nanometer in one second

**Example of NS Events**

0.5 - average life of some molecules

0.1 - cycle time for radio frequency 1 GHz, an inverse unit

1.017 - time for light to travel one foot

3.3356 - light travels 1 meter in a vacuum

10 - one generation of a chain reaction (nuclear)

12 - half life of K Meson

100 - cycle time for 10MHz frequency

Although we measure the propeller chip in millions of instructions per second, relatively speaking, one could just as easily offer measurements in the number of calculations per nanosecond. For example, a cog can reach a theoretical 20 MIPS which is one instruction every .00000005 second. This is equal to one instruction every 50 nanoseconds. However it may sound faster calling it one instruction every .05 microsecond.

Molecular is sometimes refered to the range of 100 to 10,000 nanometers.

The smallest objects that the unaided human eye can see are about 0.1 mm long. That means that under the right conditions, you might be able to see an ameoba proteus, a human egg, and a paramecium without using magnification.

1.616x10^{-35} m | 1.616x10^{-35} m | the Planck length (the smallest measurement of length that has meaning) |

1x10^{-15} m | 1x10^{-15} m | one fermi |

1 fm | 1x10^{-15} m | diameter of proton (in the nucleus) |

2.2 fm | 2.2x10^{-15} m | classical diameter of neutron |

3.8 fm | 3.8x10^{-15} m | diameter of the nucleus of a helium atom |

5.635882 fm | 5.635882x10^{-15} m | classical diameter of an electron |

7.2 fm | 7.2x10^{-15} m | diameter of the nucleus of an aluminum atom |

14 fm | 1.4x10^{-14} m | diameter of the nucleus of a gold atom |

14 fm | 1.4x10^{-14} m | diameter of the nucleus of a gold atom |

1,000 fm | 1x10^{-12} m | one picometer |

1 pm | 1x10^{-12} m | wavelength of gamma rays |

38 pm | 3.8x10^{-11} m | diameter of flourine ion |

52.9 pm | 5.29x10^{-11} m | most likely distance from electron to nucleus in a hydrogen atom (bohr radius) |

74.13 pm | 7.413x10^{-11} m | distance between bonded hydrogen atoms |

100 pm | 1x10^{-10} m | one angstrom |

120 pm | 1.2x10^{-10} m | Van Der Waals radius of hydrogen atoms (max distance between atoms that are not bonded) |

200 pm | 2x10^{-10} m | resolution (size of smallest visible object) of a transmission electron microscope |

248.2 pm | 2.482x10^{-10} m | distance between bonded iron atoms |

275 pm | 2.75x10^{-10} m | Van Der Waals radius of potassium atoms (max distance between atoms that are not bonded) |

282 pm | 3x10^{-10} m | diameter of water molecule |

340 pm | 3.4x10^{-10} m | distance between base pairs in a DNA molecule |

380 pm | 3.8x10^{-10} m | diameter of xenon ion |

530.9 pm | 5.309x10^{-10} m | distance between bonded cesium atoms |

530.9 pm | 5.309x10^{-10} m | distance between bonded cesium atoms |

1,000 pm | 1x10^{-9} m | one nanometer |

1 nm | 1x10^{-9} m | diameter of glucose molecule |

2 nm | 2x10^{-9} m | diameter of DNA helix |

5 nm | 5x10^{-9} m | diameter of insulin molecule |

6 nm | 6x10^{-9} m | diameter of a hemoglobin molecule |

10 nm | 1x10^{-8} m | thickness of cell wall (gram negative bacteria) |

75 nm | 7.5x10^{-8} m | size of typical virus |

90 nm | 9x10^{-8} m | length of transistor gate in a Pentium 4 chip (minimum feature size) |

125 nm | 1.25x10^{-7} m | thickness of gold leaf |

130 nm | 1.3x10^{-7} m | length of transistor gate in a Pentium 3 chip (1.4 Ghz) |

200 nm | 2x10^{-7} m | diameter of smallest bacteria |

200 nm | 2x10^{-7} m | resolution (size of smallest visible object) of an optical microscope |

260 nm | 2.6x10^{-7} m | length of the smallest transistor in a Pentium 3 chip |

410 nm | 4.1x10^{-7} m | wavelength of violet light |

680 nm | 6.8x10^{-7} m | wavelength of red light |

1,000 nm | 1x10^{-6} m | one micrometer (micron) |

1 µm | 1x10^{-6} m | size of typical bacterium |

1 µm | 1x10^{-6} m | diameter of sperm cell |

1.5 µm | 1.5x10^{-6} m | length of transistor gate in an Intel 286 chip |

1.7 µm | 1.7x10^{-6} m | diameter of average human cell nucleus |

2.4 µm | 2.4x10^{-6} m | thickness of red blood cell |

3 µm | 3x10^{-6} m | length of transistor gate in an Intel 8086 chip |

4 µm | 4x10^{-6} m | diameter of capillary |

7 µm | 7x10^{-6} m | diameter of a single yeast organism |

8.4 µm | 8.4x10^{-6} m | diameter of red blood cell |

10 µm | 1x10^{-5} m | diameter of average cell in human body |

10 µm | 1x10^{-5} m | size of a grain of talcum powder |

16 µm | 1.6x10^{-5} m | length of the smallest transistor in the first 6502 chips |

16 µm | 1.6x10^{-5} m | length of the smallest transistor in the first 6502 chips |

20 µm | 2x10^{-5} m | length of the smallest transistor in an Intel 4004 (the first microprocessor) |

20 µm | 2.0x10^{-5} m | diameter of a small grain of sand |

25 µm | 2.5x10^{-5} m | length of sperm cell |

25 µm | 2.5x10^{-5} m | diameter of a human hair |

83.82 µm | 8.382x10^{-5} m | typical thickness of a piece of paper |

100 µm | 1x10^{-4} m | mimimum size of object the human eye can resolve unaided |

100 µm | 1x10^{-4} m | diameter of human fertilized egg cell |

100 µm | 1x10^{-4} m | size of a grain of salt |

110 µm | 1.1x10^{-4} m | thickness of a dollar bill |

300 µm | 3x10^{-4} m | diameter of a period on a typewriter |

375 µm | 3.7x10^{-4} m | diameter of the most common type of optical fiber |

750 µm | 7.5x10^{-4} m | size of largest known bacterium |

1,000 µm | 1x10^{-3} m | one millimeter |

1.7 mm | 1.7x10^{-3} m | diameter of the head of the average pin |

2 mm | 2x10^{-3} m | diameter of a large grain of sand |

2 mm | 2x10^{-3} m | diameter of a large grain of sand |

2 mm | 2x10^{-3} m | size of a small ant |

4.234 mm | 4.234x10^{-3} m | height of a line of text in 12-point type |

10 mm | 1x10^{-2} m | one centimeter |

1.7 cm | 1.7x10^{-2} m | wavelength of 20khz note (highest that can be heard) at 27 degrees celsius |

2.5 cm | 2.5x10^{-2} m | size of a large ant |

2.54 cm | 2.540x10^{-2} m | one inch |

8.5 cm | 8.5x10^{-2} m | length of largest human chromosome if it were stretched end-to-end |

12.2 cm | 1.22x10^{-1} m | wavelength of microwaves in a microwave oven |

30 cm | 3.0x10^{-1} m | one foot |

79 cm | 7.9x10^{-1} m | wavelength of 440 hertz note (A above middle C) at 27 degrees celsius |

91 cm | 9.1x10^{-1} m | one yard |

1 m | 1 m | one meter |

1 m | 1 m | one meter |

3 m | 3 m | average wavelength of FM radio waves |

17 m | 1.7x10^{1} m | wavelength of 20 hertz note (lowest that can be heard) at 27 degrees celsius |

299.7925 m | 2.997925x10^{2} m | distance light travels in one microsecond, in a vacuum |

343 m | 3.43x10^{2} m | distance sound travels in one second (at 20 degress celsius) |

415 m | 4.1x10^{2} m | distance a bullet travels per second, when fired from a .22 |

415 m | 4.1x10^{2} m | distance a bullet travels per second, when fired from a .22 |

1,000 m | 1x10^{3} m | one kilometer |

1.609344 km | 1.609344x10^{3} m | one mile |

4.3 km | 4.3x10^{3} m | thickness of Greenland ice cap, at thickest point |

4.47 km | 4.47x10^{3} m | greatest measured thickness of antarctic ice cap |

8.85 km | 8.85x10^{3} m | height of Mount Everest |

10.294 km | 1.0294x10^{4} m | depth of Marianas Trench |

11 km | 1.1x10^{4} m | average height of top of troposphere (layer of atmosphere affected by weather) |

29.78 km | 2.978x10^{4} m | distance the earth travels per second in its orbit |

48 km | 4.8x10^{4} m | average height of top of stratosphere (layer of atmosphere containing ozone; free of weather, good for flying) |

50 km | 5x10^{4} m | depth of earth's crust |

60 km | 6x10^{4} m | thickness of ozone layer |

80 km | 8x10^{4} m | height of ionosphere (ionized region which reflects radio waves) |

80 km | 8x10^{4} m | average height of top of mesosphere (strong currents, unstable, bad for flying) |

160 km | 1x10^{5} m | 100 miles |

299.7925 km | 2.997925x10^{5} m | distance light travels in one millisecond, in a vacuum |

299.7925 km | 2.997925x10^{5} m | distance light travels in one millisecond, in a vacuum |

300 km | 3x10^{5} m | height of space shuttle's typical orbit |

354 km | 3.54x10^{5} m | average altitude of International Space Station |

640 km | 6.4x10^{5} m | height of lowest point of inner Van Allen belt |

792 km | 7.92x10^{5} m | altitude of Iridium satellites (LEO) |

825 km | 8.25x10^{5} m | altitude of Orbcomm satellites (LEO) |

914 km | 9.14x10^{5} m | diameter of the asteroid Ceres |

1,000 km | 1x10^{6} m | thickness of earth's atmosphere |

1,375 km | 1.375x10^{6} m | height of Teledesic (low-earth orbit) satellites |

1,414 km | 1.414x10^{6} m | altitude of Globalstar satellites (LEO) |

2,274 km | 2.274x10^{6} m | diameter of Pluto at its equator |

2,890 km | 2.89x10^{6} m | depth of earth's outer (liquid) core |

3,474.8 km | 3.4748x10^{6} m | diameter of moon |

3,962 km | 3.962x10^{6} m | distance from New York to Los Angeles |

4,879.4 km | 4.8794x10^{6} m | diameter of Mercury at its equator |

5,150 km | 5.150x10^{6} m | diameter of Titan |

5,150 km | 5.150x10^{6} m | diameter of Titan |

5,150 km | 5.15x10^{6} m | depth of earth's inner (solid) core |

5,200 km | 5.2x10^{6} m | height of highest point of outer Van Allen belt |

5,262 km | 5.262x10^{6} m | diameter of Ganymede |

5,613 km | 5.613x10^{6} m | distance from New York to London |

6,378.14 km | 6.37814x10^{6} m | distance to center of Earth |

6,794.4 km | 6.7944x10^{6} m | diameter of Mars at its equator |

9,084 km | 9.084x10^{6} m | distance from London to Los Angeles |

9,380 km | 9.38x10^{6} m | mean distance from Phobos to Mars |

10,390 km | 1.039x10^{7} m | altitude of ICO satellites (MEO) |

12,103 km | 1.2103x10^{7} m | diameter of Venus at its equator |

12,756.2 km | 1.27562x10^{7} m | diameter of Earth at its equator |

20,200 km | 2.02x10^{7} m | altitude of GPS satellites |

23,460 km | 2.346x10^{7} m | mean distance from Deimos to Mars |

35,800 km | 3.58x10^{7} m | height of satellite in geostationary orbit |

47,810 km | 4.781x10^{7} m | min initial altitude of Geotail satellite (VHO) |

47,810 km | 4.781x10^{7} m | min initial altitude of Geotail satellite (VHO) |

49,492 km | 4.9492x10^{7} m | diameter of Neptune at its equator |

51,118 km | 5.1118x10^{7} m | diameter of Uranus at its equator |

120,536 km | 1.2053x10^{8} m | diameter of Saturn at its equator |

142,984 km | 1.4298x10^{8} m | diameter of Jupiter at its equator |

299,792.5 km | 2.997925x10^{8} m | distance light travels in one second, in a vacuum |

384,400 km | 3.844x10^{8} m | mean distance from earth to moon |

868,912 km | 8.68912x10^{8} m | max initial altitude of Geotail satellite (VHO) |

1,070,000 km | 1.07x10^{9} m | mean distance from Jupiter to Ganymede |

1,221,850 km | 1.22185x10^{9} m | mean distance from Saturn to Titan |

1,390,000 km | 1.39x10^{9} m | diameter of sun at its equator |

1,500,000 km | 1.5x10^{9} m | distance to SOHO satellite (L1 Lagrange point) |

1,500,000 km | 1.5x10^{9} m | distance to SOHO satellite (L1 Lagrange point) |

17,987,550 km | 1.798755x10^{10} m | distance light travels in one minute, in a vacuum |

57,910,000 km | 5.791x10^{10} m | mean distance of Mercury from the sun |

108,200,000 km | 1.082x10^{11} m | mean distance of Venus from the sun |

1 AU | 1.4959787x10^{11} m | mean distance of Earth from the sun (one astronomical unit) |

1.5236 AU | 2.2794x10^{11} m | mean distance of Mars from the sun |

2.766 AU | 4.139x10^{11} m | mean distance of the asteroid Ceres from the sun |

5.2028 AU | 7.7833x10^{11} m | mean distance of Jupiter from the sun |

7.2143607 AU | 1.079253x10^{12} m | distance light travels in one hour, in a vacuum |

7.2143607 AU | 1.079253x10^{12} m | distance light travels in one hour, in a vacuum |

9.5549 AU | 1.4294x10^{12} m | mean distance of Saturn from the sun |

19.1913 AU | 2.87099x10^{12} m | mean distance of Uranus from the sun |

30.109 AU | 4.5043x10^{12} m | mean distance of Neptune from the sun |

34 AU | 5.2x10^{12} m | maximum distance of Halley's Comet from the sun |

39.5294 AU | 5.91352x10^{12} m | mean distance of Pluto from the sun |

43.8 AU | 6.56x10^{12} m | distance of QB1 object from Sun |

62.32 AU | 9.323x10^{12} m | current distance of Voyager 2 from sun (as of 10/27/00) |

79.125 AU | 1.1837x10^{13} m | current distance of Voyager 1 from sun (as of 10/27/00) |

80 AU | 1x10^{13} m | termination shock--point at which solar wind becomes subsonic |

134 AU | 2.0x10^{13} m | heliopause (outer edge of Sun's magnetic field) |

134 AU | 2.01x10^{13} m | distance of 1996 TL66 object from Sun |

173.14464 AU | 2.590207x10^{13} m | distance light travels in one day, in a vacuum |

372 AU | 5.56x10^{13} m | maximum distance of comet Hale-Bopp from the sun |

1,212.0125 AU | 1.813145x10^{14} m | distance light travels in one week, in a vacuum |

1,212.0125 AU | 1.813145x10^{14} m | distance light travels in one week, in a vacuum |

25,000 AU | 3.7x10^{15} m | possible distance of Sol B from Sun |

63,239.737 AU | 9.460530x10^{15} m | distance light travels in one year (one light-year) |

1.5 ly | 1.4x10^{16} m | possible edge of Oort cloud |

3.26 ly | 3.08x10^{16} m | one parsec |

4.22 ly | 3.99x10^{16} m | distance to the star Proxima Centauri (nearest star other than sun) |

4.3 ly | 4.1x10^{16} m | distance to the stars Alpha Centauri A and B |

8.6 ly | 8.1x10^{16} m | distance to the star Sirius |

8.6 ly | 8.1x10^{16} m | distance to the star Sirius |

25.2 ly | 2.39x10^{17} m | distance to the star Vega |

33 ly | 3.2x10^{17} m | distance to the star Pollux |

36 ly | 3.5x10^{17} m | distance to the star Arcturus |

51 ly | 4.9x10^{17} m | distance to the star Castor |

77 ly | 7.3x10^{17} m | distance to the star Regulus |

300 ly | 2x10^{18} m | thickness of Milky Way Galaxy |

430 ly | 4.0x10^{18} m | distance to the star Polaris |

1.6 kly | 1.5x10^{19} m | distance to Horsehead Nebula |

1.6 kly | 1.5x10^{19} m | distance to Horsehead Nebula |

20 kly | 1x10^{20} m | diameter of Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy |

27 kly | 2.6x10^{20} m | distance to center of Milky Way Galaxy |

44 kly | 4.2x10^{20} m | diameter of M33 galaxy |

162 kly | 1.54x10^{21} m | diameter of Milky Way Galaxy |

200 kly | 1x10^{21} m | distance to Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy |

200 kly | 1x10^{21} m | diameter of M31 galaxy |

300 kly | 2x10^{21} m | distance to Small Magellanic Cloud galaxy |

300 kly | 2x10^{21} m | distance to Small Magellanic Cloud galaxy |

2,200 kly | 2.0x10^{22} m | distance to Andromeda galaxy |

3,000 kly | 2x10^{22} m | distance to Pisces galaxy |

4,000 kly | 3x10^{22} m | distance to IC 10 galaxy |

5,000 kly | 4x10^{22} m | distance to Pegasus galaxy |

11,000 kly | 1.0x10^{23} m | distance to the M81 galaxy cluster |

15,000 kly | 1.4x10^{23} m | distance to the M83 galaxy |

27,000 kly | 2.5x10^{23} m | distance to the M101 galaxy |

35,000 kly | 3.3x10^{23} m | distance to the M66 galaxy cluster |

37,000 kly | 3.5x10^{23} m | distance to the M51 galaxy cluster |

38,000 kly | 3.5x10^{23} m | distance to the M95 galaxy |

41,000 kly | 3.8x10^{23} m | distance to the M96 galaxy |

60,000 kly | 5x10^{23} m | distance to the Virgo galaxy cluster |

60,000 kly | 5x10^{23} m | distance to the Virgo galaxy cluster |

340,000 kly | 3.2x10^{24} m | distance to the Coma galaxy cluster |

2,000,000 kly | 1x10^{25} m | distance to brightest quasar (3C 273) |

4,000,000 kly | 3x10^{25} m | distance to quasar 3C 48 |

26,000,000 kly | 2.4x10^{26} m | distance to farthest known object (quasar SDSS_1044_0125) |

**LINKS**

http://www.falstad.com/scale/