A typical electret microphone preamp circuit uses an FET in a common source configuration. The two-terminal electret capsule contains a FET which must be externally powered by supply voltage V+. The resistor sets the gain and output impedance. The audio signal appears at the output, after a DC-blocking capacitor.
THE MICROPHONE is an important part of the radio station. In a simplified circuit, it must deliver reasonable sound quality and provide a usable frequency response and audio level.
The principle of operation is that sound waves impinging on the diaphragm cause the capacitance between it and the back plate to change synchronously, this in turn induces an AC voltage on the back plate.
"It must be realized that all electret mics (indeed, all mics) have one limitation we cannot readily change, and that is maximum SPL (Sound Pressure Level). Because electret capsules have an integral amplifier, there will always be a level where they will distort.
A capsule having a 10k feed resistor and supplied from a 15V supply will output well over 1V RMS quite easily, simply by having it close enough to your mouth as you speak loudly.
Even professional microphones (including dynamic types) are quite capable of 0dBm in close proximity to a floor tom or a loud singer. As a result, close vocal work, drums and brass instruments (trumpet, sax, etc) are capable of extremely high SPL, and are not really suitable candidates for electret mics. It is possible to get good performance at up to 115dB SPL quite easily - possibly more.
The sensitivity can be reduced, simply by reducing the value of the feed resistor. Again, there is a limit, as the internal FET amplifier can be driven into distortion regardless of what you do on the outside of the capsule. It is feasible to modify the capsule itself - but this is only possible with some models unless you are willing to make a few sacrifices (you can guarantee that you will ruin a couple in the process)."
The legs on the electret microphone can extend through the cabinet. The mic is supported using a single strand color insulated copper wire. The mic electrical cable has a negative shield side to reduce interference. The microphone has a foam covering fabricated from a discarded headset. The wire support is bendable for best positioning.
One improvement, since moving very close to the mic produces a much better signal and greater clarity, is a funnel that can direct the sound into the mic. This may be a great improvement and needs further testing. It may resemble a miniature old fashioned Thomas Edison "Gramophone." The cone can be fabricated from paper, cardboard or plastic from a bottle.
The microphone resistance is measured at 1.37 ohms.
SPL - Sound Pressure Level
Microphone - Receiver that converts sound energy to electrical energy. Also described as a sound sensor.
the pressure of sound on a microphone.
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