|ELB @ Elect Lens Boost|
|GMM - Humanoido Labs|
The electron microscope, first developed by German engineers Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll in the 1930s, uses a particle beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen and create a highly magnified image. Electron microscopes yield much greater resolution than the older light microscopes; they can obtain magnifications of up to 1 million times, while the best light microscopes can magnify an image only about 1,500 times. An electron microscope can range from US$90,000.00 to half a million dollars.
THE SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is among a number of instruments that allows scientists to view and manipulate nanoscale particles, atoms, and small molecules. It was invented by Gerd Binig and Heinrich Rohrer in 1986. The idea of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy STM comes from the “topografiner” developed in the early 1970’s (Young et al., 1972), that included most of the elements of an STM but can only operate with a larger tip-to surface gap (>1 nm, at which distance electron transport occurs via field emission). Deficiencies in both the mechanical and electrical systems at 1970’s limited the resolution to a few nanometers vertically and ~0.5 μm laterally. These problems were overcome ten years later by Binnig and Rohrer at the IBM Rüschlikon laboratory. They succeeded in creating an instrument with stable vacuum tunneling and precision scanning capabilities – the conditions required for atomic resolution imaging. STM has revolutionized the study of surfaces and is rapidly becoming a required tool in almost every surface characterization laboratory. In addition, it has led to the development of a host of related techniques, collectively known as scanning probe microscopy (SPM).
ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE
Atomic force microscopes (AFMs) gather information by "feeling" the surface with a mechanical probe. Gerd Binig, along with Calvin Quate and Christoph Gerber, developed the first AFM in 1986. Product Example: The package include the technical integration of an AFM into an imaging ellipsometern of the nanofilm_ep3 series. Take advantage of the convenience of imaging ellipsometry to visualize thin films and surface structures, and then zoom into nanometer details with Scanning Probe Microscopy on the same spot! The integration is done by an intelligent sample handling, integrating complementary data from two independent methods without the need for laborious sample positioning. The technical integration of a Scanning Probe microscope enables the user to: * measure the same field of view with imaging ellipsometer and scanning probe microscope * observe nano-steps in the live contrast-image of the ellipsometer, draw your region of interest around the nano-steps, and record surface film thickness, profiles/maps with nanofilm_ep3 (large field of view, quick) or by the AFM (submicron lateral resolution, slow ~ 3 min for an 80 µm by 80 µm scan) * map thickness and optical properties (refractive index/extintion) and 3D-profile/surface-roughness at the same sopt on a sample within minutes, due to software-controlled sample transport between imaging ellipsometer and Atomic force microscope with smaller than 20 µm accuracy and 2 µm repeatability